### Active case

In this method a retaining Wall is drawn to a suitable scale as shown in the Fig.1 below.

The Various steps in the procedure are:

- Draw É¸-line AE at an angle É¸ with the horizontal.
- Lay off on AE distances AV, A
_{1}, A_{2}, A_{3}etc to a suitable scale to represent the weight of wedges ABV, AB_{1}, AB_{2}, AB_{3}, and so on. - Lay off AD at an angle equal to (Î±- Î´) to the line AE. The line AD is called pressure line.
- Draw lines parallel to AD from points V, 1, 2, 3 to intersect the assumed lines AV, A
_{1}, A_{2}, A_{3}at points V’, l’, 2′, 3′ etc respectively. - Join points V’, l’, 2′, 3′ etc by a smooth curve which is the pressure locus.
- Select the point C’ on pressure locus such that the tangent to the curve is parallel to the É¸-line AE.
- Draw CC’ parallel to the pressure line AD. The magnitude of CC’ in its natural units gives the active pressure P
_{a}. - Join AC’ and produce to meet the surface of the backfill at C. AC is the rupture line.

#### Passive Case

In this method a retaining wall is drawn to a suitable scale as shown in the Fig.2 below.

The various steps in the procedure are:

- Draw É¸-line AE at an angle É¸ below the horizontal.
- Lay off on AE distances A
_{2}, A_{3}, A_{4}etc to a suitable scale to represent the weight of wedges AB_{2}, AB_{3}, AB_{4}, and so on. - Lay off AD at an angle equal to (Î±+ Î´) to the line AE. The line AD is called pressure line.
- Draw lines parallel to AD from points, 2, 3, 4 etc to intersect the weight vectors A
_{2}, A_{3}, A_{4}at points 2′, 3′, 4′ etc respectively. - Join points, 2′, 3′, 4′ etc by a smooth curve which is the pressure locus.
- Select the point C’ on pressure locus curve such that the line tangent to the curve is parallel to É¸-line AE.
- Draw CC’ parallel to the pressure line AD. The magnitude of CC’ in its natural units gives the passive pressure P
_{p}.

Join AC’. The line cuts the surface of the backfill at C. The line AC is the rupture line.