The project Arduino and RFID based Door Access System is basically an access control system and can be placed where authorize entry is compulsion like office, school etc.
Previously in bestengineeringprojects.com we had already posted RFID based security system using microcontroller AT89C52 which is used to open door and Arduino and RFID Based Attendance System for taking attendance.
Working of RFID Module:
RFID (Radio Frequency identification) basically use an electromagnetic field to detect unique tag assigned to object in the vicinity. A RFID receiver module radiate electromagnetic radiation of about 125KHz through its internally designed coil. When a RFID tag is of 125KHz is placed near to receiver module it will get energized as a result high signal is generated which is connected to arduino for further processing.
Reason of using RFID system:
RFID detect unique tags assigned to object in the vicinity. It is due to the fact that RFID traces tags hidden inside objects unlike bar codes. That is why people opt out for RFID based security system. Considering this fact, we developed a security system using RFID techniques which permits entry of authorized individual in the area where this system is installed.
Circuit Description of Arduino and RFID based Door Access System
The circuit diagram of Arduino and RFID based Door Access System is shown in figure 1. The circuit basically consist of Arduino uno (Central control unit), RFID receiver module, RFID tag, Solenoid lock and few other electronics components like resistor, capacitors, diodes, transistors etc. for working flawlessly. The RFID module works as sensor.
The RFID field is set up by the RFID reader such that whenever a certified person enters in that field along with the unique tag assigned to him/her, RFID reader produces a signal. We call that signal a RF signal and energy travels to the tag and extract details from the tag. As per the communication medium, TXD pin of RFID module is connected to RXD (pin 0) of an arduino uno as shown in circuit diagram. When this system clarifies the authorized access, pin 10 of arduino uno reaches high state. As a result of which, a transistor T1 falls into saturation. Then consequently, solenoid get energized and the door get unlocked indicating authorize access by glowing LED LED3
In case where the attempts are unauthorized, the door remain closed. Additional LED2 start to glow indicating the warning message.
Software: The software of Arduino and RFID based Door Access System is written is arduino programming language and compiled using arduino IDE. You can download the code from link below. The folder of software code contains two arduino sketch file called Tag_Read.ino and Main_Program.ino. Tag_Read.ino is used to read the RFID tag where Main_Program.ino is used for controlling purpose. Before using this project, the user must first note the RFID tag which is after used in Main_Program.ino.
Procedure for reading RFID tag.
- Connect all the circuit as per circuit diagram shown in figure 1.
- Burn Tag_Read.ino arduino program to arduino to arduino board and open serial monitor.
- Brought RFID tag near to RFID module and note down the Tag ID and used in Main_Program.ino
Replace your noted RFID tag ID with the already one and burn to arduino board. Now your system will be ready to be installed in any door.
PARTS LIST OF ARDUINO AND RFID BASED DOOR ACCESS SYSTEM
|Resistors (all ¼-watt, ± 5% Carbon)|
|R1, R4 = 1 KΩ
R2, R3 = 680Ω
|C1 = 100 µF, 25V
C2 = 0.1 µF
|Arduino Uno Board
T1 = BC548
D1 = 1N4007
|LED1 – LED3 = 5mm, any color LED
RFID Receiver Module EM-18